Mortgage Terminology 101

1031 Exchange

A tax-deferred exchange of real estate employed to offset or even avoid capital gains tax.

Adjustable-Rate Mortgage (ARM)

A mortgage with a variable interest rate, which adjusts monthly, biannually, or annually. Option-arms and hybrid mortgages are also considered adjustable-rate mortgages.

Alt-A Mortgage

A home loan that isn’t prime or subprime, but somewhere in the middle.


The way a loan is paid off over time in installments, detailing how much goes toward interest, and how much is paid toward principal.

Annual Percentage Rate (APR)

The actual interest rate you pay on your mortgage, which factors in fees, points, and other costs associated with the loan.


A comprehensive report that determines the value of your property based on a number of valuation factors.


The act of assuming responsibility for the payment of a mortgage lien.

Balloon Mortgage

A short-term mortgage with small monthly installments and a large lump sum due at the end of the loan term. An example would be a 30 due in 15, which amortizes like a 30 year fixed, but is due 15 years earlier.

Biweekly Mortgage

A mortgage where 26 half payments, or 13 full payments, are made annually.

Bridge Loan

A short term loan taken out against one property to finance the purchase of a new property.


The act of securing a lower than par interest rate by paying the bank a lender a premium.


Initial, periodic, and lifetime payment caps which limit how much and how frequently an interest rate can change on an adjustable-rate mortgage.

Cash-In Refinance

A refinance transaction where borrowers bring money to the closing table to lower their mortgage balance.

Certificate of Reasonable Value (CRV)

An appraisal issued by the Veterans Administration to determine the value of a property. The loan amount may not exceed the CRV on a VA loan.


The final step in the loan process when loan documents are signed at an escrow or title company.

Closing Costs

The amount of money that must be paid to close your loan, including lender fees and third-party charges, along with taxes and transfer fees.

Conforming Loan

A loan that meets Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac guidelines, which also falls under a certain loan amount.

Construction Loan

A short-term loan given to a builder during intervals of the building process which is due upon completion of the project.

Conventional Mortgage

Any mortgage loan that is not insured or guaranteed by the federal government, such as a conforming loan.

Credit Report

A tool used by the bank or lender to review your credit scores, your payment history, and your ability to carry and repay debt.

Debt-to-Income Ratio (DTI)

The ratio of monthly liabilities and housing expenses divided by the monthly gross income of the borrower.

Deed-in-Lieu of Foreclosure

A method of avoiding foreclosure by deeding your property to the lender.

Deed of Trust

A security instrument between the borrower and the lender, recorded in public records as a lien on the subject property. It differs from a mortgage in that the bank can foreclose on the property without judicial proceedings.

Deferred Interest

The amount of interest added to the principal loan balance when a borrower pays less than the interest-only note rate (see: option arms).


The failure to make a monthly mortgage payment on time, which can eventually lead to a notice of default, and later a foreclosure.

Discount Rate

The interest rate the Federal Reserve offers to member banks and thrifts.

Down Payment

An upfront payment made by the home buyer toward the property purchase price, usually ranging from five to 20 percent. The remainder of the sales prices makes up the mortgage loan amount.

Earnest Money

A deposit paid to the seller by the buyer as a pledge to complete a real estate transaction. If the seller accepts the offer, the deposit is held in escrow and applied to closing costs when the deal is closed.

Equal Credit Opportunity Act

A federal law that prevents lenders from discriminating applicants based on race, religion, national origin, sex, age, marital status or involvement in public assistance programs.


A third party intermediary who holds and allocates funds, including taxes and insurance in a mortgage transaction.

Federal Funds Rate

The interest rate banks charge one another for overnight use of excess reserves.

Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation

One of the largest financiers of conventional mortgages on the secondary market. Widely known as Freddie Mac.

Federal National Mortgage Corporation

A publicly owned, government-sponsored corporation that packages mortgages and resells them on the secondary market. Also known as Fannie Mae.

FHA Loan

A program originated during The Great Depression that allows lower income borrowers to qualify for mortgages as long as they fit certain criteria set forth by the Federal Housing Administration who insures them.

First-Time Homebuyer

Typically defined as someone who has not owned another property at any time during the three years prior to the date of the purchase.

Fixed-Rate Mortgage

A mortgage with a constant interest rate that will not adjust at any point during the life of the loan.


The legal process by which a bank or lender sells a property after a borrower fails to meet the repayment terms of the loan.

Good Faith Estimate

A disclosure which details your loan summary and an estimate of the charges you’ll incur upon settlement.

Graduated Payment Mortgage

A negative amortization mortgage with flexible payment options that gradually increase over time until leveling off. Intended for young couples who are unable to make the full mortgage payment, but whose income will increase over time.

Hard Money Loan

A mortgage of last resort for borrowers who can’t obtain financing in the standard market due to poor credit.


A refinance loan offered to those with negative equity.

Hazard Insurance

Insurance which protects a property owner from damages caused by fire or severe weather.

High Cost Mortgage

A mortgage with higher interest rate and/or fees than a Hich Priced Mortgage as defined by the CFPB. Also, known as a HC mortgage or a Private Money (PM) loan.

High Priced Mortgage

A mortgage with slightly higher interest rate and/or fees than a Qualified mortgage, as defined by CFPB. Also, know as a HP mortgage.

Home Equity

The value of a property less any and all existing liens. If a borrower owns a property worth $500,000 and has liens of $400,000, equity is $100,000.

Home Equity Line of Credit

A line of credit that uses the value of a property as collateral.

Impound Account

An account established by the issuing bank/lender or loan servicer to collect monthly and automatically pay a borrower’s property taxes and insurance costs when payments are due.

Interest Only

Paying just the interest portion of the mortgage payment each month.

Jumbo Loan

A loan amount above the conforming loan limits, which is set each year by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. These loans typically carry higher interest rates than conforming loans because they can’t be sold to Fannie or Freddie.

Lender Credit

A credit paid by the lender to the borrower for taking an above-market interest rate.

Lender-Paid Mortgage Insurance

The lender pays for your mortgage insurance in exchange for a higher interest rate on your mortgage.

Lender Overlay

A guideline (or set of guidelines) in addition to those required by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, or the FHA/VA.


A claim against a property by the issuing bank or lender to secure repayment of a debt, typically in the form or a mortgage.

Loan Officer

A representative of a bank or broker who originates mortgages on their behalf.

Loan Origination

The initiation of the home loan process whereby a borrower submits their information to a bank or lender in order to obtain mortgage financing.

Loan Processor

The individual who handles all the paperwork associated with closing your loan.

Loan-to-Value (LTV)

The percentage of loan amount borrowed on a property compared on the appraised property value. A down payment of 20% would create a loan-to-value of 80/100 = 80% LTV.


A given amount specified by the bank or lender which when added to the accompanying mortgage index sets the interest rate for an adjustable-rate mortgage.


A temporary loan used to finance the purchase of real property, also known as a home loan.

Mortgage Broker

An independent loan originator who works on behalf of consumers to obtain mortgage financing. Brokers don’t represent a single bank, but rather work with numerous lenders.

Mortgage Discount Points

A form of prepaid interest whereby the borrower lowers the interest rate of the mortgage at closing.

Mortgage Due Date

The date your mortgage payment is due each month during the loan’s duration.


The issuing bank or mortgage lender.

Mortgage Insurance

Required insurance on a mortgage if the down payment is less than twenty percent and a single loan is used to finance the property.

Mortgage Lender

An institution that originates mortgage loans either to keep for interest income or sell on the secondary market.

Mortgage Payment

The cost of your loan, paid monthly.

Mortgage Rate

The interest rate associated with your mortgage.

Mortgage Rate Lock

The act of locking-in a desired interest rate on your mortgage so it cannot change. Borrowers also have the option to float their rate.

Mortgage Term

The length of your mortgage. Most are 30 years, though 15 years is also very common.


The borrower or homeowner.

Negative Amortization

When a mortgage payment received is below the interest-only payment, the difference will be added onto the principal balance of the loan.

Ninja Loan

No income, no job, no asset loan. A “Ninja loan” is industry slang for a no doc loan, which doesn’t require income, asset, or job verification.

No Closing Cost Refinance

A refinance transaction in which the bank or broker pays all settlement costs.


A written promise to repay the mortgage plus interest, which includes the name of the borrower, issuing lender, and the terms and provisions.

Option Arm

A home loan that gives borrowers four payment options, including a negative amortization payment option.

Origination Fee

A percentage of the loan amount charged by the bank or broker, for completing the loan process.

Par Rate

The interest rate a borrower will qualify assuming there is no rate manipulation.

Payment Shock

A sudden, large increase in the monthly mortgage payment as a result of an adjustable-rate mortgage or through a refinance with new financing terms.

Piggyback Mortgage

A second mortgage that closes simultaneously with the first mortgage to reduce the total necessary down payment.


The monthly housing expense, expressed as principal, interest, taxes, and insurance (see: mortgage payment).


Stands for a percentage point of the loan amount, typically makes up the loan origination fee charged by the broker or lender, which can be a fraction of a point to multiple points.


Processes to determine what you can afford to ensure you can obtain mortgage financing when purchasing a property.

Prepayment Penalty

If a loan is refinanced or repaid prior to a certain date as agreed upon in the loan documents, a fee will be charged by the bank or lender.

Prime Rate

The interest rate offered by commercial banks to its best corporate customers.


The balance of the liens on a property, not including interest. What you owe on your mortgage.

Private Money Mortgage

A mortgage financed by an individual lender and secured by a real property.

Purchase Money Mortgage

A mortgage used to purchase a piece of property.

Qualified Mortgage

A conventional home loan that meets the new underwriting guidelines established by the CFPB. Also known as a QM loan.

Quitclaim Deed

A document by which a person either disclaims interest in a property or transfers interest to another person, typically a spouse.


The act of replacing your existing loan(s) with a new loan on the same property. There are two main types of refinancing, including a rate and term refinance and cash-out refinance.

Reverse Mortgage

A mortgage reserved for homeowners aged 62 or older who wish to tap their home equity without paying monthly mortgage payments.

Right of Rescission

A law which allows a homeowner to rescind a contract to refinance their primary residence within three days after signing loan documents.

Second Mortgage

A mortgage taken out behind a first mortgage, either concurrently or after the fact.

Seller Carryback

When a seller acts as the bank or lender and carries a second mortgage on the subject property.

Short Sale

A foreclosure alternative where a property is sold for less than the balance on the associated mortgage.

Short Refinance

A refinance transaction where the lender agrees to lower the rate and/or change the term despite the mortgage balance exceeding the property value.

Stated Income Mortgage

A mortgage in which the borrower does not have to document their income.

Streamline Refinance

An expedited refinance that requires limited underwriting, and may even forego the need for an appraisal.

Subprime Mortgage

A home loan reserved for those who have marginal credit or difficulty qualifying for a traditional loan.

Teaser Rate

The initial, discounted interest rate offered on adjustable-rate mortgages.

Title Insurance

Protection against lawsuits and claims tied to the chain of title on the subject property.

Underwater Mortgage

A mortgage whose balance exceeds the value of the property. Also known as an “upside down” mortgage.


The individual who decisions your mortgage by either approving, suspending, or declining it.

VA Mortgage

A mortgage offered to veterans and their families that is guaranteed by the Veterans Administration.

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